Parts of the classic guide book, Baedeker's CENTRAL ITALY, are included as an appendix in the back half of the book with additional information about the historic sites.  Hyperlinks in the ebook bring the reader from the main text to this appendix at various points in the walking tours, making it easy to jump back and forth from text to appendix.  We include Baedeker’s text here for Walk One to give you some idea of the value of this historic guidebook.  Baedeker has also been helpful in providing all the maps and many diagrams. 

With this added Baedeker content our book is both a streamlined, high-tech guidebook and a comprehensive reference work with in-depth historical descriptions.

BAEDEKER Introduction:

Rome (Roma in Latin and Italian), known even in antiquity as ‘the Eternal City’, once the capital of the ancient world, afterwards of the spiritual empire of the popes, and since 1871 the capital of the kingdom of Italy, is situated in an undulating plain of alluvial - and marine deposits, intersected by volcanic masses. This plain extends from. Capo Linaro, S. of Civita Vecchia, to the Monte Circeo, a distance of about 85 M. and between the Apennines and the sea, a width of 25 M. The Tiber (Ital. Tevere), the largest river in the Italian peninsula, intersects the city from N. to S. in three`wide curves. The water of the Tiber is turbid (the ‘flavus Tiberis’ of Horace). The average width of the river is about 65 yds. and its depth 20 ft., but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft. more. The navigation of the river, by means of which the commerce of ancient Rome was carried on in both directions, with transmarine naons as well as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively insignificant. An artificial channel has been constructed for the river within the city since 1876. Twelve bridges span the stream in or near Rome, including the railway-bridge at San Paolo and an iron foot-bridge.
   The city proper lies on the left bank of the Tiber, partly on the plain, the ancient Campus Martius, and partly on the surrounding hills. Modern Rome is principally confined to the plain, while the heights on which the ancient city stood were almost uninhabited in the middle ages and following centuries, and have only recently begun to be re-occupied. These are the far-famed Seven Hills of Rome: the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, and Caelius. The least extensive, but historically most important, is the Capitoline (165 ft.), which rises near the Tiber and the island. It consists of a narrow ridge extending from S.W. to N.E., culminating in two summits, separated by a depression. Contiguous to the Capitoline, in a N.E. direction, and separated from it by a depression occupied by Trajan’s Forum, extends the long Quirinal (170 ft.). On the N. a valley, occupied by the Via del Tritone and the Piazza Barberini, separates the Quirinal from the Pincio (165 ft.), which was not originally regarded as one of the chief hills to the E. of the Quirinal, but considerably less extensive, rises the Viminal (180 ft.), now almost unrecognizable owing to the construction of new streets; its highest point is near San Lorenzo in Panisperna.

Farther to the S., beyond the valley now marked by the Via Santa Lucia in Selci and the Via dello Statuto (called Subura in antiquity), are the Cispius (175 ft. at Santa Maria Maggiore) and the Oppius ï (165 ft. on the plateau of Traj an’s Therm), both included under the name Esquiline. The Oppius, Cispius, Viminal, Quirinal, and Pincio may all be regarded as spurs of the extensive plateau of the Esquiliae (170-195 ft.), which extended from the Praetorian Camp to the Railway Station and the Porta Maggiore. To the S.E. of the Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the isolated Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors. Farther to the S., close to the river, separated from the Palatine by the depression (70 ft.) in which the Circus Maximus lay, is the Aventine (150 ft.). Lastly, to the S.E. of the Palatine and to the E. of the Aventine, is the long Caelius (165 ft.), the E. end of which is occupied by the Lateran.

On the low ground between the Caelins, Palatine, and Esquiline is situated the Colosseum; and between the Palatine, Esquiline, and Capitoline stretches the Forum. On the right bank of the Tiber lies the smaller part of the city, divided into two halves: on the N. the Borgo around the Vatican and St. Peter’s, encircled with a wall by Leo IV. in 852; and to the S., on the river and the slopes of the Janicalum, Trastevere, These two portions are connected by the long Via delle Lungara. The WALL enclosing this area, which was inhabited during the imperial epoch by 3/4-1 million souls, has a length of about 10 M. on the left bank and is pierced by 13 gates. It is constructed of tufa concrete with a facing of triangular bricks, and on the outside is about 55 ft. high. The greater part of it dates from 271 to 276. It was begun by the Emp. Aurelian, completed by Probus, and restored by Honorius, Theodoric, Belisarius, Narses and several popes. The wall on the right bank dates mainly from the time of Pope Urban VIII.  Since 1870 Rome has been fortified by a series of detached forts forming a circle of about 30 M. in circumference round the city.
Campo dei Fiori - Cancelleria


vegetable-market every morning. Heretics and criminals used to be put to death here. Among the former was the philosopher Giordano Bruno (b. 1548), whose death on Feb. 17th, 1600, is commemorated by a bronze *Statue (by Ettore Ferrari), erected in 1889 on the site of the stake. To the E. of the Campo di Fiore once lay the Theatre of Pompey. In the court of the Palazzo Pio or Righetti (entrance, Via Biscione 95), a bronze statue of Hercules and substructures of the theatre were discovered. The semicircular curve of the street by Santa Maria di Grottapinta distinctly shows the form of the ancient auditorium; the stage lay below the present Via de’ Chiavari. Behind the latter extended the large Porticus Pompeiana, with its colonnades and halls, in one of which Julius Caesar was murdered on March 15th, 44 B.C. The Via de’ Giubbonari leads hence to San Carlo at Catinari.


an edifice of majestic simplicity, designed in strict conformity with the ancient orders of architecture, is one of the noblest Renaissance monuments in Rome. It was built in 1486-95 for Card. Raffaello Riario by a Tuscan architect, but not by Bramante, who did not come to Rome until 1499. The elegant facade is constructed of blocks of travertine from the Colosseum. The beautiful balcony at the S.E. corner should be noticed. The chief portal of the palace, in an inharmonious baroque style, was added by Domenico Fontana.
It leads into the *Court, surrounded by arcades in two stories. The columns are antique and were formerly in the basilica of San Lorenzo, whence they were removed at its reconstruction. The graceful capitals are decorated with roses, a flower which appears in the armorial bearings of Card. Riario. Under the arcade to the left is a bust of Padre Secchi, the astronomer. To the right is a door leading to the church of San Lorenzo. The Cancelleria and the Dataria are the only palaces in the interior of the city which government still permits to be in the hands of the pope. Chapel is richly decorated with frescoes of the school of Perin del Vaga. The large Board Room contains- frescoes illustrating the life of Paul by Vasari.
The handsome portal by Vignola, nearest the Corso, admits to the church of SAN LORENZO IN DAMASO. The ancient basilica of this name was originally founded by Damasus I. (ca. 370) near the Theatre of Pompey, but it was taken down at the instance of Card. Riario and rebuilt in connection with the palace. The internal decoration dates from the time of Pius VII. (1820) and Pins IX. (1873). At the E. end of the right aisle is the tomb of the papal minister Count Rossi, who was assassinated on the staircase of the Cancelleria in 1848 (bust by Tenerani); the left aisle contains the tomb of Card. Scarampi, by Paolo Romano (1467).

To the left on Corso Vittorio Emmanuelle is the a small building like an Ionic temple, opened in 1905 for the reception of the antiquities presented to the city by Senator Barraeco (Museo di Scultura Antica).
    Room I. To the right, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Egyptian Sculptures. To the left of the entrance are two Assyrian reliefs (Winged genius, Warriors and horse); under glass, Egyptian stele with well-preserved colouring. In the centre, Egyptian lion’s head of sycamore-wood; fine Egyptian reliefs; wooden statues; alabaster cinerary urns. To the right of the exit: in the middle of the shelf, three finely-executed Egyptian heads; masks of mummies, gilded and of stucco coloured to imitate nature; Roman portrait-head of black basalt (not Caesar, who never wore a beard).  To the left of the exit Phoenician lion’s head (Protome) of alabaster; late-antique bust of a woman from Palmyra; archaic sculptures from Cyprus; Byzantine mosaic and relief; *Late-Etruscan head of a female demon; archaic Etruscan tombstones with finely-executed reliefs; statuette of Bes, the Egyptian god of the toilet. To the right of the entrance and in the centre are Greek Sculptures: lower part of an archaic Attic stele (only the feet of the deceased remain; below, his servant on horseback); portrait-bust of Pericles (after Cresilas); statue of a young athlete; archaic head of Athena (eyes inserted); above, elegant head of “a girl (eyes inserted); on the right, archaic head of a boy in the Aeginetan style; archaic statue of Athena (head wanting); head of a general; female statue from a tomb (head wanting). On the table in the centre: double hermes with two boys’ heads; copies of the Doryphorus and of the Diadumenos after Polycletus. Standing by itself  Torso of the Amazon of ‘Polycletu.
    Room II. Chiefly Greek Sculptures. On each side of the entrance is a. marble sepulchral vase with a relief. To the left of the entrance: Statuette of a woman, in the severe style; *Fragment of a statuette of a man (an excellent copy in miniature of a statue of an athlete by PolyCletus); above,- *Head of Marsyas, a good copy of a bronze-statue by Myron; head of an athlete; *Head of Mars, an excellent Roman work of the Trajan period; *Head of Apollo in the severe style (Apollo Barracco); above, faded *Portrait of Epicurus; head of Helios (not Alexander the Great).  End-wall : upper part of an archaic statuette of Hermes bearing a ram upon his shoulders (as protector of flocks); above, on the left, head from a statue of a boy by Polycletus. In the centre, good copies of the heads of the Doryphorus and Diadumenos of Polycletus. Back-wall: head of Aphrodite (4th cent. B.C.); finely executed Attic sepulchral and votive reliefs; head of Apollo; statuette of a woman in the severe style. Glass case with vases, terracottas, and articles in vitreous paste. Fragment of an- archaic relief and of a statuette of Poseidon; head of a centaur; Hellenistic colossal head of a woman; two statuettes of women bearing jars, in rosso antics; dancing satyr; *Bust of an athlete; well- executed fragment of a relief with horses’ heads. End-wall: *Fragment of an Attic votive relief. To the right of the entrance : Roman bust of a boy; Greek head of a girl; upper part of an Attic sepulchral relief; *Head of a Woman and *Head of an Old Man, both from Attic sepulchral reliefs of the 4th cent. B.C.; hand of Myron’s Discobolus. In the centre: *Wounded dog (period of Lysippus).
   Farther along the Tiber is San Giovanni de’ Fiorentini, the handsome national church of the Florentines. The building was begun, prior to 1521, by desire of Leo X., from a design by Jac. Sansovino (which was preferred to competing plans of Raphael, Ant. da Sangallo the Younger, and Peruzzi); and the difficult task of completing the substructures on the river was executed by Sangallo. Michael Angelo, and on his death, Giac. della Porta and Carlo Maderna were afterwards engaged in the work. The facade was added by Aless. Galilei in 1734. In the right transept is a picture by Salv. Rosa (SS. Cosmas and Damianus at the stake).
To the S.E. from San Giovanni runs the Via Giulia.
Quarter to the S. of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele as far as the Piazza Montanara. Isola Tiberina. To the S. of the Pal. della Cancelleria lies the busy
Sant’ Andrea della Valle - Farnese


Begun by P. Olivieri in 1594 on the site of several earlier churches, and completed by C. Maderna, has a florid facade added in 1665 from designs by Carlo Rainaldi. The well-proportioned interior, with the huge frescoes by Domenichino, affords an excellent example of the late Renaissance style, though it has been too gaudily ‘restored’ in 1905-7.
   On the right the 2nd Chapel (Strozzi) contains copies in bronze of the Pieta and the Rachel and Leah of Michael Angelo,, whose influence is apparent in the design of this chapel itself.  On the left the 1st Chapel (Barberini) is adorned with several marble statues of the school of Bernini,  Above the last arches in the Nave are the monuments of the two popes of the Piccolomini family, brought hither from the old church of St. Peter;` on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1464), by Pasquino da Montepulciano (5); on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), by Franc di Giovanni and Bastiano di Franc. Ferrucci.  In the Dome: Glory of Paradise, by Lanfranco; below, on the pendentives, the *Evangelists by Domenichino, one of his finest works (1623). By the same master, *Frescoes on the vaulting of the apse. In front, between the transverse ribs, a rectangular painting of John the Baptist pointing out Christ to St. John and St. Andrew (John, I. 35); in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of St. Andrew; in the centre, the Vocation of SS. Peter and Andrew by Christ; on the right, St. Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be affixed; below are six female figures representing the virtues. The large lower frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of St. Andrew) are of no great value.

S Andrea Valle vicinity:  Palazzo Messina alle Colonne, a fine structure by Bald. Peruzzi, who, however, died in 1536 before its completion. The arc-shaped facade was skilfully adapted to the curve of the originally narrow street, but has lost its effect by the construction of the wide Corso. The glimpse obtained of the double court is, however, still strikingly picturesque. On the second floor is the Chapel of San Filippo Neri who is said to have here resuscitated a child of the Massimi family.
In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans Pannartz and Schweinheint, who during the two previous years had found an asylum in the monastery of Subiaco, established the first printing-office in Rome, from which they issued Cicero’s Epistles and other works, furnished with the name of the printers and the words ‘In aedibus Petri de Maximis’.  The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii Maximi, and their amorial bearings have the motto ‘Cunctando restituit’.
On the left, at the point where the Via de’ Baullari diverges to the Palazzo Farnese, is the little Palazzo Linotte, built about 1523 for the French prelate Thomas le soy, of Rennes, whose armorial lilies, repeated several times in the frieze, have procured the erroneous titles of Palazzo della Farnesina and Farnesina dei Baullari for the palace. It is probably a work of Ant. da Sangallo the Younger, and has a tasteful court and staircase. The restoration, begun in 1898 under Enrico Gui, is now complete.
    To the right opens the Piazza di San Pantaleo, containing the small church of San Pantaleo, with a facade erected, by Giuseppe Valadier in 1806. In the centre is a monument, by Gangeri, to the Italian statesman Marco Minghetti (1818-86).
From the Piazza San Pantaleo the Via San Pantaleo runs towards the N.W. No. 9 in this street, on the right, is the spacious Palazzo Braschi u, 1.4 erected by Morelli in 1780. It contains a fine marble staircase with a few ancient statues. The N. side of the building looks towards the Piazza Nivona. 


one of the finest palaces at Rome, begun before 1514 by Card. Aless. Farnese, afterwards Pope Panl SIT: (1534-49), from-designs by Ant. da Sangallo the. Younger, continued after his death (1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo, and completed by the construction of the loggia at the back, towards the Tiber, by Giac. della Porta in 1580. _ Michael Angelo’s plans had included a second court (behind the present court), to be decorated with the Farnese antiquities now at Naples, and a bridge connecting the palazzo with the Villa Farnesina on the other side of the Tiber. The building materials were taken partly from the Colosseum and partly from the Theatre of Marcellus. This palace was inherited by the kings of Naples, whose descendant, Count Caserta, still owns it. Since 1874 it, has been let to the French government, whose embassy to the Italian government is established here. On the second floor is the French Roman School. The triple colonnade of the vestibule and the two arcades of the court were designed by Sangallo, the arcades being in imitation of the Theatre of Marcellus; the upper story (originally open) and the beautiful cornice are by Michael Angelo. The court contains two antique sarcophagi (that to the right said to be from the tomb of Caeilia Metella). The oblong Galleria, or hall, on the first floor, contains admirable mythological frescoes by’ Ag. and An. Caracci and their pupils, but is not accessible.
    The church of Santa Brigida, on the N.W. side of the Piazza Farnese, occupies the site of the house of the Swedish princess Bridget (1302-73), who wrote her ‘Revelationes’ here and was canonized in 1391.  In the Via Giulia, behind the Palazzo Farnese, is situated the round church of Santa Maria della Morte, founded by the fraternity of the Fratelloni della Buona Morte.

V Monserrato etc            From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets, called the Via di Monserrato and Via de’ Banchi Vecchi, leads to the N.W. to the Ponte Sant’ Angelo. On the right in the first of these is San Tommaso di Canterbury, or degli Inglesi, the church of the English College, rebuilt in 1888 on the site of a church said to have been founded by a king of Wessex in the 8th century. It contains among others- the simple but noble tomb of Cardinal Bainbridge, Archbishop of York (d. 1514). The adjoining college contains portraits of English cardinals from Wolsey to Vaughan.
   On the left side of the Via di Monserrato, farther on, stands Santa Maria di Monserrato the national Spanish church, with a hospice. It was erected in 1495. In the passages of the entrance and in the court a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia and Apollo with the Muses, and (1.) the Calydonian Hunt and Rape of Proserpine; in the portico, Sacrifice to Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian procession; all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and the niches on the staircase, some of them freely restored, are of no great value. The stucco decorations of the ceiling over the staircases are well executed.
   Opposite, on the right, is the Palazzo Costaguti (No. 10), built in 1570 by Carlo Lombardo. The interesting ceiling-paintings on the first floor, by Albani, Domenichino, Guercino, Lanfranco, and others, are important specimens of the school of the Caracci. Farther on we observe on the left, on the site of the ancient Circus Flaminius, the church of Santa Caterina de’ Funari, erected in 1549-63 by Giac. della Porta, with a facade in the style of Vignola and a baroque tower. The name of the church is derived from the rope-makers who in the middle ages plied their trade within the circus.
   Straight in front is the Palazzo Ascarelli, whence the Via Delfini leads to the left to the Via d’Aracoeli, the street to the right to the Piazza Campitelli. Here, on the right, is -
Chiesa Nuova - Governo Vecchio


or Santa Maria in Vallicella, erected by San Filippo Neri about 1580 for the order of Oratorians founded by him, and finished in 1605. The architects were Giov. Matteo da Citta di Castello and Mart. Lunghi the Elder, to the latter of whom are due not only the interior but probably also the design of the facade executed by Rughesi. The Interior is richly decorated, the admirable stucco-work being by Cos. Faniello and Ercole Ferrata. The ceiling of the nave, the dome, and the tribune are painted by Pietro da Cortona.  In the Left Aisle, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous Chapel of San Filippo Neri, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic, after the original by Guido Rent preserved in the adjoining monastery.  Over the high-altar, with its four columns of porta santa marble, is a Madonna by Rubens; on the left *SS. Gregory; Maurus, and Papias, on the right *SS. Domitilla, Nereus, and Achilleus, also painted by Rubens, during his second stay in Rome in 1608 for this church, which was then the most fashionable in the city.
The adjoining Oratori derives its name from the oratories fitted up by San Filippo Neri. The saint was fond of music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. The adjoining Philippine Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular shape, but remarkably massive in its construction. It contains a room once occupied by the saint, with various relics. The Corte d’ Appello, the Tribunate Civile e Correzionale, and the Tribunate di Commercio are now established here. -- The Biblioteca Vallicelliana is also preserved here.
    Farther on, to the left, lies the small Piazza Sforza, with the Palazzo Sforza-Cesarini, the Bohemian Hospice, restored in 1875, and a monument (by Benini; 1892) to the poet and statesman Count Terenzio Mamiani (1799-188.5). Beyond the piazza. the Via del Banco di Santo Spirito diverges to the right to the Ponte Sant’ Angelo. Nos. 44-46 in this street once belonged to the banker Agostino Chigi, the ‘gran mercante della cristianita’.


At the obtuse N.W. angle of the palace stands the so-called PASQUINO, an admirable, but now sadly mutilated relic of an antique group of statuary representing Afenelens with the body of Patroclus, looking around for succor in the tumult of battle. Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia de’ Lanzi and the Palazzo Pitti at Florence, and there are fragments in the Vatican.
    Cardinal Caraffa-caused the group to be erected here in 1501. It became the custom of the professors and students of the Roman Archiginnasio on St. Mark’s day (April 25th) to affix Latin and Italian epigrams to the statue (at first without any satirical aim). The name was derived from a schoolmaster living opposite; but when the”pasquinades’ began to assume a bitter satirical character about the middle of the 16th cent. (chiefly as the result of the Reformation), the title came-to be connected with a tailor named Pasquino who was notorious for his lampoon.* propensities. The answers to the satires of Pasquino used to be to the Marforio. Compositions of this kind have been much in vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying with the best satires of antiquity.
    The Via Del Governo Vecchio, running from the small piazza named after Pasquino, formed the chief communication with the Ponte Sant’ Angelo before the construction of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele. On the right in this street is the Pal. del Governo Vecchio (1475), once the brilliant residence of Cardinal Stefano Nardini, occupied later by the law and police courts, and now a school. No. 124, opposite, is an elegant little house in Bramante’s style, built in 1500 for the papal secretary J. P. Turcius. We next pass the back of the former Philippine Monastery, cross the Piazza deli’ Orologio (Pl. II, 12), and follow the Via Monte Giordano to the right to the Palazzo Gabrielli, whence the Via di Panico leads to the Ponte Sant’ Angelo. The Palazzo Gabrielli, an 18th cent. erection with a pretty fountain in its court, stands on the Monte Giordano, a mound of ancient debris mentioned by Dante, on the top of which Giordano Orsini had a fortified mansion in the 13th century. In antiquity the site was occupied by the Odeum of Domitian, a sumptuous edifice for musical performances.


Piazza Navona, officially named Circo Agonale, which occupies, as its form still indicates, the Circus or Stadium of Domitian. The name Navona’, which was used in the middle ages and down to 1875, is said to be derived from the agones, or contests which took place in the circus,
   It is embellished with three Fountains. That at the N. end, by Leon. della Bitta and Greg. Zappala (1878), represents Neptune in conflict with a sea-monster; round the central group are Nereids and sea-horses.  Not far from it, in the centre of a large basin of Pentelic marble, rises a fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent X.; at the corners of the rock, the different parts of which represent the four quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the rivers Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio de la Plata, executed by pupils of Bernini. The whole is surmounted by an obelisk, originally erected in honour of Domitian and transferred in the late imperial period to the Circus of Maxentius.  The third fountain, at the S. end of the piazza, is adorned with masks and Tritons, including one known as Moro’, by Bernini.
    On the W. side of the Piazza Navona stands the church of Sant’ Agnese. The facade, with two fine campanili flanking the concave central portion, above which rises the dome, is due to Borromini and Carlo Rainaldi. The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain veiled his head in order to avoid seeing this facade. The fine interior, in the form of a Greek cross, is by Rainaldi.
    Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Marini: to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted by Marini from an antique statue. Beneath the dome are 8 columns of Cottanello. The old church was in the side-vaults of the Circus where St. Agnes suffered martyrdom. Three subterranean rooms with ancient vaulting still remain, one of them containing a good relief of the Martyrdom of St. Agnes by Algardi.
    To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamphili, erected by Girolamo Rainaldi, (note: now the Brazilian Embassy) Opposite to it is the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, erected in 1450, and recently restored. In the tympanum above the portal (1464) are two angels by Mino da Fiesole (on the right) and Paolo Romano (on the left). The interior contains a chapel (on the right) by Ant. da Sangallo and (on the left) an early-Renaissance organ-loft.  At the S. end of the piazza is the Pal. Braschi.

beyond Piazza Navona:  SM dell’ Anima       The Via Sant’ Agnese, to the right of the church, leads to the Via dell’ Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated -
   *Santa Maria dell’ Anima erected in 1500-1514. The handsome facade has been erroneously attributed to Giuliano da Sangallo. The name is explained by the small marble group in the tympanum of the portal (16th cent.): a Madonna invoked by two souls in purgatory. This is the church of Roman Catholics of German nationality, amongst whom the Netherlanders were formerly included.
    The Interior, designed by a northern architect, has lately been thoroughly restored. The modern frescoes of busts of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seitz (1875-82), by whom also the stained-glass window over the chief portal was designed. On the entrance-wall, tomb of Cardinal With. Enckevort (d. 1534).  Right Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the keys of the cathederal at Meissen (Saxony), which had been recovered from the stomach a fish, altar-piece by Carlo Saraceni (pupil of Caravaggio). On the 3rd pillar, Tomb of Hadrian Vryberg of Alkmaar, with pleasing figures of children by ‘the Dutch sculptor Frans Duquesnoy. (d. 1644 at Rome). 2nd Chapel: Holy Family, altar-piece by Gimignani; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 4th Chapel: altered copy of Michael Angelo’s Pieta in St. Peter’s, by Nanni di Baccio Bigio.  Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: Martyrdom of St. Lambert, by C. Saraceni (fine chiaroscuro). 3rd Chapel: frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, by Mich. Coxcie. 4th (Brandenburg) Chapel: altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Franc. Salviati.
    Choir. Over the high-altar, Holy Family with saints, by Giulio Romano, damaged by inundations; on the right, the fine monument of Hadrian VI. of Utrecht (preceptor of Charles V., d. 1523), with figures of justice, prudence, strength, and temperance, designed by
Baldassare Peruzzi, executed by Michelangiolo Sanese and Niccold Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Duke of Cleve-Jiilich-Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Nicolaus of Arras. A relief in the ante-chamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the investiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas Flolste of Hamburg, librarian of the Vatican (d. 1661.) This church is noted for its music.

In the PIAZZA SANT’ EUSTACHIO, to the S.W. of the Pantheon, lies the Universita della Sapienza founded in 1303 by Boniface VIII., and after a rapid decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest prosperity under Leo X. It possesses four faculties (law, medicine, physical science, and philosophy) and is connected with institutes for the study of economics, pharmacy, and archaeology. It contains several natural history collections and the Biblioteca Alessandrina. The present building was designed by Giac. della Porta (1575). The church (Sant’ Ivo), with its grotesque spiral tower, was designed by Borromini in 1660 in the form of a bee, in honour of Urban VIII. (Barberini), in whose armorial bearings that insect figures. The colonnaded court, in two stories, is among the most imposing in Rome.  The Via degli Staderari leads to the N.W. to the Piazza Madama, in which is the main facade of the -
   Palazzo Madama. In the middle ages the site of this palazzo was occupied by a fortified mansion erected among the ruins of the Therms of Nero by the Crescenzi, of which the tower in the Via degli Staderari is a relic. After about 1460 the house came into the possession of the Medici, whose bank was established here, but they had to surrender it temporarily, during the pontificate of Paul III., to `Madama’ Margareta, natural daughter of Charles V., who married Uttavio Farnese, Duke of Parma, in 1538 and afterwards became Regent of the Netherlands. Giov. Ste f. Marucelli of Florence altered it to its present form in 1642 by the orders of Ferdinand II., Grand-duke of Tuscany. Benedict XIV. purchased the palace in 1740, and since 1871 it has been the meeting-place of the Italian Senate (Palazzo del Senato). The vestibule, court, and staircase contain antique statues, sarcophagi, reliefs, and busts. The royal reception-room was adorned by Cesare ilfaccari in 1888 with noteworthy frescoes representing Appius Claudius Caecus, Regulus, Cicero, and Catiline.
Opposite the N. side of the Pal. Madama rises -


the national church of the French, consecrated in 1589. The two-storied facade by Giac. della Porta raises unfulfilled expectations as to the size of the interior (decorated about 1750 by Antoine Derizet). The chapels are badly lighted. Best light about midday.
   Right Aisle. On the pillar opposite the 1st chapel is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel: *Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of the most admirable works of Domenichino on the right the saint distributes clothing to the poor; above, she and her betrothed are crowned by an angel; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing of the Pope; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael’s St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Reni.  4th Chapel. Frescoes : Giro-lame Sicciolante da Sermoneta, Clovis at the head of his army; Pellegrino Tibaldi, Baptism of Clovis at Rheims.  Over the high-altar : Assumption, a fine work by Franc. Bassano.  Left Aisle. By the first pillar on the right the monument of Claude Lorrain, erected in 1836. In the 5th chapel, Scenes from the life of St. Matthew, by Caravaggio.
   On the S.E. side of the Piazza San Luigi rises the Palazzo Giustiniani, built by Carlo Fontana and Borromini, with a few antiques in the court and staircase.